What kind of breast cancer is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and how is it treated?
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) Basics
IDC is a very common type of breast cancer. It starts developing in the milk ducts of your breast, but breaks out of the duct tubes, and invades, or infiltrates, surrounding tissues. Unlike ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which is a non-invasive cancer, IDC is not a well-contained cancer.
IDC has the potential to invade your lymph and blood systems, spreading cancer cells to other parts of your body. If IDC spreads beyond its original site, we say it has metastasized.
It’s important to point out that the term invasive means that this cancer has spread beyond the ducts, but it’s not necessarily as scary as it sounds. The term invasive doesn’t mean that the cancer has spread beyond the breasts, or even that it has invaded your lymph ducts or blood vessels.
IDC is Common
IDC is the most common breast cancer diagnosis and accounts for about 8 out of 10 of all invasive breast cancers. This type of breast cancer can be found in men as well as women, and can occur at any age. Most patients with IDC are 55 or older at diagnosis.
Also Known As:
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma, Infiltrating Carcinoma, Invasive breast cancer
Signs and Symptoms
Invasive ductal carcinoma may feel like a hard, bumpy, irregularly-shaped lump beneath your areola or around the central area of your breast.
An IDC lump will feel like it is attached to the breast tissue around it, so it may appear to be moveable. But it will be moving with the tissue that it has infiltrated. IDC can cause nipple retraction (nipple or areola pulling in). When doing your regular breast self-exam, if your nipple won’t remain standing out from your areola, it’s a good idea to go see your doctor for a clinical breast exam.
On a mammogram, microcalcifications can appear near an IDC mass.
Tests Used for Diagnosis
If you find a breast lump during your breast self-exam or a clinical exam, it’s best to have it properly checked out. Remember that 80% of all breast lumps are not cancer. But if breast cancer is caught early, your chances of survival are very good. Some tests that are used to get a clear diagnosis for invasive ductal carcinoma are:
- High-resolution ultrasound
- Open surgical breast biopsy
Stages of IDC
Invasive ductal carcinoma can be diagnosed from stages 1 through 4. When an invasive breast cancer is caught and treated at an early stage, is it less likely to recur. Treatment of IDC will be tailored to the stage and other important characteristics of your tumor which are discussed below.
Your Prognosis For Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Doctors use the term prognosis to talk about your future outlook for survival. Your prognosis will depend on many details about your tumor, and those details will help decide which treatments will be most effective for you.
Details on your pathology report will include:
- Tumor size
- Surgical margins
- Tumor grade
- Hormone receptor status
- HER2 levels
- Lymph node status
Treatments for Invasive Breast Cancer
The goal of treating any breast cancer is to get rid of the cancer cells and to prevent recurrence. Treatments may include:
- Lumpectomy (surgery to remove the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue)
- Mastectomy (surgery to remove all of the breast tissue)
- Sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary node dissection
- Targeted Biological Therapy
- Hormone therapy
Other Tests/Metastatic IDC
Depending upon the stage of your cancer and other factors, further tests may be done to make sure the cancer has not spread to other regions of your body. A PET scan is a test in which radioactive sugar is injected into a vein, and then a colorful imaging test is done to look for areas in your body which appear active, as may be expected with cancer. If invasive ductal carcinoma has spread to other regions such as your lungs, your bones, or your brain it is considered metastatic breast cancer.
Follow-up After Primary Treatments
After you’ve completed primary treatments for breast cancer, you will still see your oncologist for several years, for checkups. During the next 5 years, you may need to take hormone therapy if your tumor was estrogen or progesterone sensitive. You will continue to have mammograms on any breast tissue that you still have, as well as bone density scans if you are menopausal to make sure you don’t develop osteoporosis.
If you’ve been diagnosed with IDC, reach out to your family and friends. Cancer isn’t a sprint, it’s a marathon, and it can be very helpful to have many of your friends helping with your needs rather than just one or two. There are many emotional stages to a breast cancer diagnosis, and sometimes they all occur in a day. Take time to pamper yourself. Let go of things you can’t control. We’ve learned that breast cancer creates a multitude of challenges, and is a long road, but there are often silver linings along the way. In fact, studies now tell us that along with posttraumatic stress, many breast cancer survivors experience “posttraumatic” growth. In other words, having cancer really can make you a better person!